What is in this article?:
- South Carolina peanut growers prepare to plant as acreage questions loom
- Early season pointers
• Until the last few years, it was recommended to plant no earlier than May 10 due to the threat of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV).
• However, based on research conducted at the Edisto REC, the new varieties can be planted earlier (late April/early May) without being negatively impacted by the virus as previous susceptible varieties had been.
Early season pointers
Each year at this time, growers are faced with a lot of financial and agronomic decisions to make. To help make things a little easier in regard to peanut, I have put together a few reminders and comments for your consideration before and at planting.
• Soil sample and make needed fertility and lime applications.
• pH 5.8-6.4.
• Nitrogen: Use no nitrogen in-furrow. Make sure your liquid in-furrow inoculant stream is applied directly to the bottom of the furrow in good soil moisture.
• Phosphorus: Applying 80 lb P2O5/ac at soil test <11 lb/ac or 40 lb at soil test <20 lb/ac is sufficient for peanuts, but maintain P and K levels in rotational crops.
• Potassium: very conservative recommendations: absolutely none needed above 60 lb/ac soil test (Melich 1); apply 40 lb K2O at 41-60 lb/ac soil test; apply 80 lb at 30-40 lb/ac soil test; apply 100 lb at < 30 lb/ac soil test.
• Manganese: At pH 6.0 Mn soil test sufficiency is 8 lb/ac. Required soil sufficiency level increases 1 lb/ac for every 0.1 increase in pH.
• Zinc: Prevent toxicity. If soil test Zn is 6-10 lb, lime to pH 6.2; at 11-20 soil test Zn, lime to pH 6.4; at 21-30 soil test Zn, lime to pH 6.5.
• Calibrate and clean sprayers and planting equipment.
• Start with a weed free conditions no matter the tillage practices used.
• Strip-till — Burndown weed and cover crop.
• Conventional — tillage and preplant herbicides incorporated
• At Planting
• Seeding Rates — A seeding rate of 5 to 6 seed per foot is recommended to establish a uniform stand.
• Be sure to check germination of peanut seed.
• At-plant insecticide — The labeled Thimet use rate is 5.5 oz/1,000 row ft. which is equivalent to 4.7 lb/ac on 38”, 5.0 lb on 36”, and 6.0 lb on 30” rows. For twin rows use 3.5 oz/1,000 row ft in each row, which equals 6.0 lb/ac on 38” centers. CruiserMax Peanut will be available in 2013. Be aware that if you use on a moderately resistant variety like Champs or Gregory you will need to apply Orthene shortly after emergence.
• Use an Bradyrhizobium liquid inoculant.
• Inoculant Rules:
• Check the flow of inoculant multiple times a day.
• Use only liquid in-furrow inoculants particularly on “new” land. Granulars & seed treatments are less reliable.
• Do not expose inoculant to heat.
• If inoculant sits in the tank overnight, treat it as plain water and add a fresh batch.
• Use a minimum of 5 gal water per acre; 8 gal probably better.
• Make sure the inoculant stream hits exactly in the center of the open furrow, not the dry furrow walls. Tips knocked out of alignment cause yellow peanuts. Trash caught in strip tillage rigs can deflect the inoculant stream.
• Don’t plant too shallow (less than 1.5”). Inoculant must hit moist soil or it will die.
• Do not use chlorinated water.
• Apply with a steady stream, not a pulsing pump.
• Twin rows require a full inoculant rate in each row (on new land).
• On new land, consider using a backup plan — add a half rate of a different brand of liquid inoculant to your first liquid inoculant.
• Watch what you add to the inoculant water — some additives can reduce viability of the Bradyrhizobium bacteria.
• Starter Fertilizer — applying nitrogen fertilizer to peanuts at planting or during the season has not shown any yield advantage unless you have an inoculant failure. Adding nitrogen at-plant can reduce nodulation.
• CBR Management — Use of Vapam two weeks before planting is the most effective control of CBR. Proline in-furrow can help in suppressing CBR. Both products are relatively expensive and should only be applied to fields with a history of CBR.
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