He runs a four-year peanut rotation of cotton, tobacco and soybeans.

Revels’ farm, which is a few miles south of Raleigh, is about as far west as anyone grows peanuts in North Carolina. It is close to the fall line, and some of the soil is red clay. Revels tries to put his peanuts on loamy sand that has a little structure.

David Jordan, North Carolina Extension peanut specialist, said the state won’t have higher plantings this year because peanuts are getting so much competition from other crops. “Acreage will be about the same or maybe down a little,” he said. “We should start planting around the second week of May.”

 The phaseout of Temik and increased regulations on the use of Vapam were both weighing heavily on the minds of many North Carolina growers as planting approached, he said.

“There is some Temik left now, maybe enough for this season,” he said. “But sometime in the foreseeable future, we will have to learn to grow peanuts without it. We will be more vulnerable to thrips damage and maybe some more to nematodes as well, since Temik does a good job of suppressing nematodes.”

Farmers may use Thimet and Orthene instead. “Thimet and Orthene do a good job of controlling thrips, though not as good as Temik,” said Jordan.

Will growers abandon the use of Vapam? It has not been banned, but more extensive federal regulations make the fumigant less appealing than in the past.

More stringent respiratory protection measures will be required, as well as the development of a fumigant management plan and the annual communication of mandatory safety information to workers.

“It may seem difficult for some growers to justify going to the expense of doing all this,” he said. “Managing CBR and nematodes is going to be more difficult, and I expect to see less fumigation used.”

North Carolina peanut farmers have better rotations than they had a few years ago, so the loss of Vapam may not be as damaging as it might appear, he said.

The fungicides Proline and Provost (the active ingredient in both is prothioconazole) provide some control of CBR when applied in-furrow (Proline) or as part of a leafspot control program (Provost).

Fungicides perform best when used in combination with a CBR-resistant cultivar and will not correct a CBR problem once symptoms appear.