Turning to starter fertilizer in corn, Harris says he’s looking in his research at potassium in the furrow. Growers traditionally use small amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus as starter fertilizer.

“Our data showed that we actually did get more potassium into the plant when we put it in the starter, but it didn’t translate into yield,” he says.

“We’re pretty comfortable now with 10 gallons of 10-30-40 in the furrow on corn, after two years of looking at it, although it might not always translate into yield. Even with no nitrogen in the furrow and potassium alone, we still did okay.

“As long as you account for other nutrients in your program, things like 10-30-40 and some nitrogen solution is not a bad way to go.

“It didn’t hurt the stand in corn. It’s one of the concerns we have with putting stuff in the furrow. I’m still not comfortable with putting anything in the furrow with cotton. Corn is a hardier seed, and the in-furrow treatment did not hurt stand.”

The main advantage of starter fertilizer is better early-season growth, according to University of Georgia Extension recommendations.

Corn planted in February, March or early April is exposed to cool soil temperatures, which may reduce phosphate uptake.

Banding a starter fertilizer 2 inches to the side and 2 inches below the seed increases the chances of roots penetrating the fertilizer band and taking up needed nitrogen and phosphorus.

Harris says he also conducted a simple phosphorus rate study this past year.

“I found a really low soil-testing phosphorus patch on the experiment station that had a phosphorus level comparable to what you’d normally see when you’re going into new ground.

“The recommendation for 200-bushel corn is actually 140. We say that if you have medium-testing phosphorus soils, you only have a 50-percent chance of seeing yield response from adding it. But you don’t need to take that chance — go ahead and put it out there.”

Of the 16 essential plant nutrients, there’s a lot of focus on N, P and K, but micronutrients can limit yield as well, says Harris. “They’re needed in very small amounts by the plant, and they also have a very narrow window of sufficiency range in the plant. In corn, we concentrate on boron, manganese and zinc.”

Zinc deficiency can be prevented by using thee pounds per acre of actual zinc. Do not use zinc unless soil test levels are low. If needed, apply preplant or at planting.

Boron deficiencies can occur on sandy soil low in organic matter. Generally, use one to two pounds per acre of boron applied in split applications. It is best to apply boron with the nitrogen applications.

The application of other essential nutrients should be based on plant analysis results.